This page summarises some of our key papers. After expanding a section, you can click on a paper to access its online publication page.

Case studies of individual ecology

These papers show how individual-based ecology has been used to understand wide-ranging conservation and wildlife management issues.

Wood, K.A., Stillman, R.A., Daunt, F. & O’Hare, M.T. (2014). Chalk streams and grazing mute swans. British Wildlife, 25 (3), 171-176.

Toral, G.M., Stillman, R.A., Santoro, S. & Figuerola, J. (2012). The importance of rice fields for glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus): Management recommendations derived from an individual-based model. Biological Conservation, 148, 19-27.

Wood, K.A., Stillman, R.A., Daunt, F. & O’Hare, M.T. (2012). An individual-based model of swan-macrophyte conflicts on a chalk river. In: P.J. Boon & P.J. Raven (eds), River Conservation and Management. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp. 339-343.

Forbes, V.E., Calow, P., Grimm, V., Hayashi, T.I., Jager, T., Katholm, A., Palmqvist, A., Pastorok, R., Salvito, D., Sibly, R., Spromberg, J., Stark, J. & Stillman, R.A. (2011). Adding value to ecological risk assessment with population modeling. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 17, 287-299.

Wood, K.A. (2011). Mute swans in chalk river catchments: a conservation conflict? Freshwater Biological Association News, 54, 6-7.

Forbes, V.E., Peter Calow, P., Grimm, V., Hayashi, T., Jager, T., Palmqvist, A., Pastorok, R., Salvito, D., Sibly, R., Spromberg, J., Stark, J. & Stillman, R.A. (2010). Integrating population modeling into ecological risk assessment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 6, 191-193.

Stillman, R.A., Moore, J.J., Woolmer, A.P., Murphy, M.D, Walker, P., Vanstaen, K.R., Palmer, D. & Sanderson, W.G. (2010). Assessing waterbird conservation objectives: an example for the Burry Inlet, UK. Biological Conservation, 143, 2617-2630.

Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Stillman, R.A., Triplet, P., Desprez, M., Fagot, C., Loquet, N., Sueur, F. & Goss-Custard, J.D. (2008). Using an individual-based model to inform estuary management in the Baie de Somme, France. Oryx, 42, 265-277.

Caldow, R.W.G, Stillman, R.A., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, West, A.D., McGrorty, S., Goss-Custard, J.D., Wood, P.J. & Humphreys, J. (2007). Benefits to shorebirds from invasion of a non-native shellfish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B – Biological Sciences, 274, 1449-1455.

Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Stillman, R.A., McGrorty, S., West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D. & Price, D. (2007). Predicting the effect of local and global environmental change on shorebirds: a case study on the Exe estuary, UK. Wader Study Group Bulletin, 112, 24-36.

O’Hare, M.T., Stillman, R.A., Mcdonnell, J. & Wood, L.R. (2007). Effects of mute swan grazing on a keystone macrophyte. Freshwater Biology, 52, 2463-2475.

Stillman, R.A., West, A.D., Caldow, R.W.G. & Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit (2007). Predicting the effect of disturbance on coastal birds. Ibis, 149, 73-81.

Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Stillman, R.A., Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S., West, A.D. & Humphreys, J. (2006). Modelling the effect of environmental change on shorebirds: a case study on Poole Harbour, UK. Biological Conservation, 131, 459-473.

Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Stillman, R.A., Triplet, P., Aulert, C., Biot, D.O.dit, Bouchet, A., Duhamel, S., Mayot, S. & Goss-Custard, J.D. (2005). Modelling the efficacy of proposed mitigation areas for shorebirds: a case study on the Seine estuary, France. Biological Conservation, 123, 67-77.

Stillman, R.A., West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D., McGrorty, S., Frost, N.J., Morrisey, D.J., Kenny, A.J. & Drewitt, A.L. (2005). Predicting site quality for shorebird communities: a case study on the Humber estuary, UK. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 305, 203-217.

Caldow, R.W.G., Beadman, H.A., McGrorty, S., Stillman, R.A., Goss-Custard, J.D., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, West, A.D., Kaiser, M.J., Mould, K. & Wilson, A. (2004). A behavior-based modeling approach to reducing shorebird-shellfish conflicts. Ecological Applications, 14, 1411-1427.

Stillman, R.A., West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D., Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Yates, M.G., Atkinson, P.W., Clark, N.A., Bell, M.C., Dare, P.J. & Mander, M. (2003). An individual behaviour-based model can predict shorebird mortality using routinely collected shellfishery data. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 1090-1101.

West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D., McGrorty, S., Stillman, R.A., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Stewart, B., Walker, P., Palmer, D.W. & Coates, P. (2003). The Burry shellfishery and oystercatchers: using a behaviour-based model to advise on shellfishery management policy. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 248, 279-292.

Stillman, R.A., Goss-Custard, J.D., West, A.D., McGrorty, S., Caldow, R.W.G., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Norris, K.J., Johnstone, I.G., Ens, B.J., van der Meer, J. & Triplet, P. (2001). Predicting oystercatcher mortality and population size under different regimes of shellfishery management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 857-868.

Stillman, R.A., Goss-Custard, J.D., West, A.D., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S. & Clarke, R.T. (2000). Predicting mortality in novel environments: tests and sensitivity of a behaviour-based model. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 564-588.

General insights from individual ecology

These papers show how individual-based ecology can provide general insights into ecological systems.

Wood, K.A., Stillman, R.A., Wheeler, D., Groves, S., Hambly, C., Speakman, J.R., Daunt, F. & O’Hare, M.T. (2013). Go with the flow: water velocity regulates herbivore foraging decisions in river catchments. Oikos, 122, 1720-1729.

Duriez, O., Bauer, S., Destin, A., Madsen, J., Nolet, B.A., Stillman, R.A. & Klaassen, M. (2009). What decision rules might pink-footed geese use to depart on migration? An individual-based model. Behavioural Ecology, 20, 560-569.

Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, McGrorty, S., West, A.D., Clarke, R.T., Goss-Custard, J.D. & Stillman, R.A. (2005). A strategy for baseline monitoring of estuary Special Protection Areas. Biological Conservation, 121, 289-301.

West, A.D., Goss-Custard, J.D., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit & Stillman, R.A. (2005). Maintaining estuary quality for shorebirds: towards simple guidelines. Biological Conservation, 123, 211-224.

Goss-Custard, J.D., Stillman, R.A., West, A.D., Caldow, R.W.G., Triplet, P., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit & McGrorty, S. (2004). When enough is not enough: shorebirds and shellfishing. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Biological Sciences, 271, 233-237.

Goss-Custard, J.D., Stillman, R.A., Caldow, R.W.G., West, A.D. & Guillemain, M. (2003). Carrying capacity in overwintering birds: when are spatial models needed? Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 176-187.

Goss-Custard, J.D., Stillman, R.A., West, A.D., Caldow, R.W.G. & McGrorty, S. (2002). Carrying capacity in overwintering migratory birds. Biological Conservation, 105, 27-41.

West, A. D., Goss-Custard, J. D., Stillman, R. A., Caldow, R. W. G., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit & McGrorty, S. (2002). Predicting the impacts of disturbance on wintering wading birds using a behaviour-based individuals model. Biological Conservation, 106, 319-328.

Goss-Custard, J.D., West, A.D., Stillman, R.A., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S. & Nagarajan, R. (2001). Density-dependent starvation without significant food depletion. Journal of Applied Ecology, 70, 955-965.

Understanding individuals

These papers measure the underlying behaviour, and individual variation in this behaviour, from which population-level predictions are obtained.

Wood, K.A. & Stillman, R.A. (2014). Do birds of a feather flock together? Comparing habitat preferences of piscivorous waterbirds in a lowland river catchment. Hydrobiologia

Hugh, N.M.M.C., Hughes, S., Leather, S., Stillman, R.A. & Holland, J.M. (2013). Yellowhammer breeding distribution in relation to field boundary habitat and summer foraging resources. Aspects of Applied Biology, 118, 297-302.

Murray, G.P.D., Stillman, R.A., Gozlan, R.E. & Britton, J.R. (2013). Experimental predictions of the functional response of a freshwater fish. Ethology, 119, 751-761.

Wood, K.A., Stillman, R.A., Coombs, T., McDonald, C., Daunt, F. & O’Hare, M.T. (2013). The role of season and social grouping on habitat use by mute swans (Cygnus olor) in a lowland river catchment. Bird Study, 60, 229-237.

Wood, K.A., Stillman, R.A., Clarke, R.T., Daunt, F. & O’Hare, M.T. (2012). The impact of waterfowl herbivory on plant standing crop: a meta-analysis. Hydrobiologia, 686, 157-167.

Baker, D.J., Stillman, R.A., Smith, B.M., Bullock, J.M. & Norris, K.J. (2010). Vigilance and the functional response of granivorous foragers. Functional Ecology, 24, 1281-1290.

Gyimesi, A., Stillman, R.A. & Nolet, B.A. (2010). Cryptic interference competition in swans foraging on cryptic prey. Animal Behaviour, 80, 791-797.

Rappoldt, C., Stillman, R.A. & Ens, B.J. (2010). A geometrical model for the effect of interference on food intake. Ecological Modelling, 221, 147-151.

Baker, D.J., Stillman, R.A. & Bullock, J.M. (2009). The effect of habitat complexity on the functional response of a seed-eating farmland bird. Ibis, 151, 547-558.

Smart, S.L., Stillman, R.A. & Norris, K.J. (2008). Measuring the functional responses of farmland birds: an example for a declining seed-feeding bunting. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 687-695.

Poole, A.E., Stillman, R.A., Watson, H.K. & Norris, K.J. (2007). Searching efficiency and the functional response of a pause-travel forager. Functional Ecology, 21, 784-792.

Gillings, S., Atkinson, P.W., Bardsley, S.L., Clark, N.A., Love, S.E., Robinson, R.A., Stillman, R.A. & Weber, R. G. (2007). Shorebird predation of Horseshoe Crab eggs in Delaware Bay: species contrasts and availability constraints. Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 503-514.

Goss-Custard, J.D., West, A.D., Yates, M.G., Caldow, R.W.G., Stillman, R.A., Bardsley, L., Castilla, J., Castro, M., Dierschke, V., Durell, S.E.A. le V. dit, Eichhorn, G., Ens, B.J., Exo, K.-M., Fernando, P.U.U., Ferns, P.N., Hockey, P.A.R., Gill, J.A., Johnstone, I., Kalejta-Summers, B., Masero, J.A., Moreira, F., Nagarajan, R. V., Owens, I.P.F., Pacheco, C., Perez-Hurtado, A., Rogers, D., Scheiffarth, G., Sitters, H., Sutherland, W.J., Triplet, P., Worrall, D.H., Zharikov, Y., Zwarts, L. & Pettifor, R.A. (2006). Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates. Biological Reviews, 81, 501-529.

Poole, A.E., Stillman, R.A. & Norris, K.J. (2006). A video-based method for measuring small-scale animal movement. Animal Behaviour, 72, 1205-1212.

Stillman, R.A. & Simmons, V.L. (2006). Predicting the functional response of a farmland bird. Functional Ecology, 20, 723-730.

Stillman, R.A. & Goss-Custard, J.D. (2002). Seasonal changes in the response of oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus to human disturbance. Journal of Avian Biology, 33, 358-365.

Stillman, R.A., Bautista, L.M., Alonso, J.C. & Alonso, J. (2002). Modelling state-dependent interference in common cranes. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 874-882.

Stillman, R.A., Poole, A.E., Goss-Custard, J.D., Caldow, R.W.G, Yates, M.G. & Triplet, P. (2002). Predicting the strength of interference more quickly using behaviour-based models. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 532-541.

Stillman, R.A., Goss-Custard, J.D. & Alexander, M.J. (2000). Predator search pattern and the strength of interference through prey depression. Behavioral Ecology, 11, 597-605.

Yates, M.G., Stillman, R.A. & Goss-Custard, J.D. (2000). Contrasting interference functions and foraging dispersion in two species of shorebird (Charadrii). Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 314-322.

Caldow, R.W.G., Goss-Custard, J.D., Stillman, R.A., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Swinfen, R. & Bregnballe, T. (1999). Individual variation in the competitive ability of interference-prone foragers: the relative importance of foraging efficiency and susceptibility to interference. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 869-878.

Triplet, P., Stillman, R.A. & Goss-Custard, J.D. (1999). Prey abundance and the strength of interference in a foraging shorebird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 254-265. Stillman, R.A., Goss-Custard, J.D. & Caldow, R.W.G. (1997). Modelling interference from basic foraging behaviour. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 692-703.

Stillman, R.A., Goss-Custard, J.D., Clarke, R.T. & Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit (1996). Shape of the interference function in a foraging vertebrate. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65, 813-824.